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harness

A harness (from the French harnais, and this in turn from the Nordic term herrnest) 1 is a safety element used in very different areas, from climbing and kitesurfing, to mountaineering in general, caving, rescues, descents of rivers (rafting).

In mountaineering and mountaineering, we can classify harnesses in:

Waist. It is the most used. It sits at the waist, with only one anchor point in the front.
Integrals. Full body.
Combined. Waist + chest (which should never be used alone). The union knot is made with the rope of the rope.

The lap harness is the safest when it comes to trauma and injury to the falling person. Even in the event of a head-down fall, the waist harness is the one that minimizes the risk of trauma. The traction on the waist produced in a head-down fall causes the body to tilt and the head to be in a safe position, eliminating part of the kinetic energy with this sway.
Integral harness.

The integral harness has been almost abandoned in rock and ice mountaineering, mainly because, in the event of a head-down fall, the sudden jerk can cause the dreaded whiplash (whiplash); It is only used in cases of high user weight or in vertical work with static rope.

On the other hand, there are harnesses made of rope, such as the Swiss saddle and the fireman's harnesses; there are also leather, latex and neoprene harnesses.
Safety harness

A safety harness is a one-person safety equipment made up of several nylon or polyester straps and tapes, which is used in work at height, vertical work and rescues. These works are carried out in all sectors of activity in general, as long as it is necessary. What is a safety harness A safety harness is, as its name implies, an item created with the safety of the worker in mind. Allows the operator to work safely and comfortably at height.

What are they for and why is their use important? of labors.

The safety harness is used to prevent the worker from falling; in fact, in many cases the safety harness is used in places where a fall represents a risk and allows the worker to travel previously inaccessible places without the use of the harness.

Types of Safety Harnesses The safety harness was invented in the late 1998th century in Holland and is credited with its creation by mountaineer Jeanne Immink. The older harnesses were simply a leather belt with steel eyebolts, which prevented the fall but not the injuries caused by the arrest in the air. Eventually, in XNUMX, with the ban on the use of these primitive devices, the true evolution of safety harnesses began, implementing different types and materials.

General Purpose Harness »» 'These are safety harnesses designed for multiple purposes. Most of them consist of three D-rings (“D” -shaped fittings that hold up to approximately 2200 kg.) For fastening the connectors to the anchor, leg loops, adjustment points, pads and hardware. Optionally they can have a fourth D ring in the chest area for greater security.

Harnesses for dirty environments For tasks where it is inevitable to get work clothes dirty (places where oils, tars, dust, paints and other elements that make dirt are used), a safety harness covered with a protective waterproof material is used, which prevents direct contact of materials with hardware or polyester, thus protecting it from corrosion damage.

Harnesses for electrical work at height They are called dielectric safety harnesses and use a protective material that isolates the hardware and D-rings from electrical currents, to prevent the harness from becoming conductive when working near electrical fields, thus protecting the worker. They are generally manufactured with vinyl covers that completely cover all metallic elements, preventing their conductivity. Harnesses for work on public roads' These are safety harnesses with reflective material, which allows achieving high visibility even at night or in fog. They are especially suitable for work on public roads, such as maintenance of lighting and traffic lights on streets and highways.

Welding Harnesses Strips are made of high temperature resistant synthetic fiber material and are flammable; resist splash sparks up to 370 ° C.

Classes of harnesses The OSHA (Occupational Health Safety Administration) categorizes three degrees of protection for safety harnesses:

Class 1: They are those body belts designed only to position the worker in a certain place and prevent a fall, but do not offer protection against falls of more than one meter. Class 2: They are chest harnesses that prevent falls in slippery places, but are not made to protect the worker against free falls vertically. They are used to lift it from underground facilities. Class 3: Full body harnesses, which protect against the most severe free falls.